Introduction

If you've ever played an old school 2D platformer such as Super Mario, then you'd probably have seen tile maps in action. Tile maps are an excellent way to save on memory, which is important when we're creating games for a microcontroller such as the Meowbit! 

In this guide, we will first show you how to use an external sprite editor such as Aseprite to create a background for a side-scrolling 2D platformer game. Then, we will create a tile map for the game.

Complete this guide to go beyond the sprite editor in MakeCode Arcade, and create your first tile map.
    • The Sprite Editor in MakeCode Arcade is the simplest way to create sprites for your arcade games. However, you may miss out on advanced tools such as: layers and frames, a timeline, or canvas zooming. These features are found on external sprite editor software such as Aseprite or Pixel Studio.

    • In this guide, we'll get started on creating a custom background with Aseprite and import it into MakeCode Arcade. This background will be used in a sidescrolling 2D platform game in our next guide. Then we will get started on our tile map and player sprite.

    • Before designing a background in any sprite editor, we'll need to think about the genre of the game we are making. With games like Snake and Space Invaders, the background stays the same throughout. In the 2D platformer genre, side-scrolling is used in which the gameplay action is viewed from a side-view camera angle and the player can move towards the left or right.

      As the player traverses the screen, the camera stays centred on the player, while the background changes. To design such a game, first we'll need to plan out a tile map. This is where we'll lay out the level design, indicating where are the walls, ground, platforms, obstacles, power-ups, goal posts etc.

    • If you've ever played old-school Super Mario, you might realise that the same tile sprites are used repeatedly throughout the game. This technique was used to reduce memory usage, which is important on a microcontroller that has much less memory than a PC. In MakeCode Arcade, we will implement the same technique. 

    • While MakeCode Arcade has a simple and easy-to-use sprite editor, you may feel limited by its basic set of tools, or maybe you're comfortable with an external pixel art software.  If so, it's actually possible to export images from an external pixel art software such as Aseprite, for use with MakeCode Arcade. This is made possible with the MakeCode Arcade Asset Tool!  

    • While you don't need to use the default palette, you'll need to work with the same 16-colour palette as your MakeCode Arcade game. In this guide, we will use the Taffy 16 Palette from Lospec. 

    • Open up Aseprite and start a new file that is 160 by 120 pixels. 

    • It also needs to be in Indexed Colour mode not RGB mode. Otherwise, your imported background will turn up in unexpected colours!

    • Click on the GIMP GPL button in Lospec, then click on the Edit Palette button.

    • Next, load the palette into Aseprite and make your pixel art background.

    • Once complete, export it as a .PNG file from Aseprite.

    • Then drag and drop this image into the Microsoft MakeCode Asset Tool, which automatically converts the image into text. 

    • We'll use the copied text in the next few steps.

  1. scene.setBackgroundImage(img`
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        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c c 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 c b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 c b b b b c 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9
        c c c c c c c b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b c c c c b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b c c c b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
        b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
        b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
        b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
        b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
        b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
        b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b b
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    `)
    • Add this code into the Javascript interface in MakeCode Arcade

  2. "palette": [
      "#000000",
      "#fafffc",
      "#ffeb33",
      "#a3c0e6",
      "#6275ba",
      "#ffab7b",
      "#ff6c7a",
      "#dc435b",
      "#3f48c2",
      "#448de7",
      "#2bdb72",
      "#a7f547",
      "#222533",
      "#f58931",
      "#db4b3d",
      "#a63d57"
    ]
    • While we've imported the image into MakeCode Arcade, we'll still need to tinker with the colour palette within MakeCode Arcade. Previously, we've done just that in Get Started with MakeCode Arcade, and the steps are the same.

    • So go over to the Javascript interface, click on pxt.json 

    • Click on Edit Settings As text

    • Add a comma after "preferredEditor": "tsprj"

    • Paste the code after it, make sure the closing curly brace stays at the end.

    • Then, click on main.ts file in the Explorer list to refresh the game.

    • Now, we are ready to create our tile map. From the Scene tab, add a set tile map to ... block into on start just after set background image to ...

    • Set this tile map to be 32x8 .

    • The tile map is different from the final screen resolution on the Meowbit! This tile map is a 32x8 pixel map, where each pixel represents a 16x16 pixel tile. 

    • Add some tiles in purple and obstacles in red for now, just to see where they will be located on screen.

    • Now, we will replace the colours with actual tile sprites! All the purple blocks will be replaced with an actual grass tile sprite, while the red blocks will be replaced with obstacle tile sprites.

    • Set both set tile ... to ... with wall ... blocks to ON

    • Next, to show the tile map in action, we'll need a player sprite. So add a set ... to sprite ... of kind ... into on start. Create our 16x16 sprite and rename it as character.

    • Then get out a set ... position to x ... y ... block. In this guide, we've positioned the character sprite to be at x: 25 and y:88.

    • Finally, add a camera follow sprite ... block into on start to follow the character sprite as it moves.

    • In our Snake or Spider Invaders game, the player sprite simply moved left or right, or up and down. Try using just the same Controller blocks (change x or y positions of player sprite) as in the other games (See picture 3), you will notice that the player sprite won't collide against the obstacle tiles, but simple moves through it. 

      That's because we have not added sprite velocity or acceleration! Adding sprite velocity and acceleration further affects a sprite's behaviour in a game. Velocity is the speed of something in a given direction, whereas acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. So you can think of this as how much an object is speeding up or slowing down in a particular direction.

    • To add velocity, from Controller get out a move ... with buttons + block. Press the plus icon and it will now be transformed into move ... with buttons vx ... vy ...

    • Set vx to be 100.

    • Next, drag a set ... x to ... block into on start, click the dropdown, and select ay (acceleration y). Set the value to 300 so that character is pulled down by “gravity”.

    • Then from Controller, get out a on ... button pressed block. Set it so that on up button press, the character sprite's vy (velocity y) is set to -100. Add a pause 500ms block after it before setting vy to be 0.

    • Click on the Download button

    • Click on Meowbit

    • Drag and drop the arcade-2d-Platformer.uf2 file to ARCADE-F4

    • Want the guide's .uf2 file? Feel free to download a copy of the complete snake game here

    • We're done with the tile map! Try moving the player sprite and you will see the background change according to the tile map that we had planned out. The player sprite will also collide against the obstacles. 

      In the next guide, more animations will be added to the player sprite, and we will also delve into creating difficulty modes, add power-ups, and complete the 2D side-scrolling platformer game.